J Genomics 2015; 3:1-19. doi:10.7150/jgen.10404

Review

Mechanisms of X Chromosome Dosage Compensation

Sevinç Ercan

Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.

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Citation:
Ercan S. Mechanisms of X Chromosome Dosage Compensation. J Genomics 2015; 3:1-19. doi:10.7150/jgen.10404. Available from http://www.jgenomics.com/v03p0001.htm

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Abstract

In many animals, males have one X and females have two X chromosomes. The difference in X chromosome dosage between the two sexes is compensated by mechanisms that regulate X chromosome transcription. Recent advances in genomic techniques have provided new insights into the molecular mechanisms of X chromosome dosage compensation. In this review, I summarize our current understanding of dosage imbalance in general, and then review the molecular mechanisms of X chromosome dosage compensation with an emphasis on the parallels and differences between the three well-studied model systems, M. musculus, D. melanogaster and C. elegans.

Keywords: X chromosomes, mechanisms