1. Poultry Processing and Swine Physiology Research, Agricultural Research Service, Richard B. Russell Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Athens, GA 30605, USA.
2. Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.
A collection of investigations indicate the importance of adipose tissue stromal/stem cells to vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during adipogenesis. Early in development the stromal-vascular (S-V) elements control and dictate the extent of adipogenesis. For instance, the vasculature and connective tissue collagen matrix develops before overt adipocyte differentiation. Definitive studies of human adipose tissue stem cells (ADSC) provided an understanding of stem cell identity and function. In this regard, a novel vascular stem cell theory proposes that ADSC are a mixed population of vascular stem cells (VSC) with differential potential proportional to the angiogenic potential of the vasculature. The differential potential of VSC can range considerably in a continuous fashion and can include vascular smooth cells, endothelial cells (EC) and adipocytes. These observations are consistent with fetal adipose tissue studies that show location-dependent angiogenic potential ranging from more to less in regards to a predominant presence of EC and developing arterioles before overt adipogenesis.
Keywords: Stromal vascular cells, adipose, depot regulators